Today marks a major milestone. Requests, Python HTTP for Humans, has finally reached release v1.0. This is a big deal. Per Semantic Versioning:
- Major version zero (0.y.z) is for initial development. Anything may change at any time.
- Version 1.0.0 defines the public API.
This release focuses on simplicity, refining of scope, sustainability, and the future of Python HTTP. I re-evaluated every unique feature of Requests, and stripped it down to the bare essentials.
I couldn't be more proud of the result.
Simplicity at its finest
A large number of features have been removed from Requests.
- Redirect resolution is now accomplished with a sexy response generator.
- Built-in OAuth and Kerberos support moved to new requests org.
- All hooks except
responseremoved, which was the only one in serious use.
- Removal of the magic
Response.jsonproperty. Replaced with a method.
- Change of
stream, to emphasize its purpose.
- Sessions now provide all persistience, connections, and configuration. No magic.
- Session creation no longer has any options. You can modify a session yourself.
- Removal of esoteric ISC license. Replaced with Apache 2.0.
- There are no more global configuration defaults.
Simplicity is always better than functionality. — Pieter Hintjens
The entire codebase has been rearchitected. For example, Requests no longer has anyconfiguration.
Previously, there was a configuration mode called
encode_uri, which gave the user the ability to fully disable Requests' (rather advanced) URI requoting. This helped two or three people get around some server-specific issues.
Now, you can cleanly create your own
>>> req = requests.Request(method='GET', url=…, data=…) <Request [GET]>
And let Requests do all the hard work.
>>> prep = req.prepare() <PreparedRequest [GET]> >>> prep.body b'…'
Have a problem with the exact value of
data? Change them yourself.
>>> prep.url = '…/obscure-cornercase.html' >>> prep.body = b'exact-bytes-required'
Who needs configuration?
So, how do we send this new
PreparedRequest object? Before, you'd call a magical
Request.send method, which would run about 2000 lines of complex, hard-to-follow, code.
Now, you can send your
PreparedRequest through a session's connection. Of course, Requests comes with a perfect adapter already:
HTTPAdapter. It seamlessly supports connection pooling, proxies, timeouts, etc. Just like you know and love :)
>>> s = requests.Session() >>> s.send(prep) <Response >
No need for a session? Send it straight through your own connection. Trade them like Pokémon cards!
>>> from requests.adapters import HTTPAdapter >>> conn = HTTPAdapter() >>> conn.send(prep) <Response >
A Connection Adapter is a simple class that lets you declare a connection, its persitience, and how to turn a
PreparedRequest into a
Response. You can register Connection Adapters in a
Session, and requests will automatically be sent through the proper adapter.
For example, we could now send requests through a theoretical
>>> from fakemodule import WSGIAdapter >>> s = requests.Session() >>> s.mount('http://staging/', WSGIAdapter()) >>> s.get('http://staging/index.html') <Response >
Implementing SPDY will be ~60 lines of code, once there's a decent client library. :)
Request's development will now focus on a few different efforts:
- Bugfixes and improvements, obviously.
- Support for streaming uploads (e.g.
- Support for new protocols (SPDY)
- Communication. Documentation, ecosystem, and community.
It's been a great two years. Thanks to everyone in the community for your continual love and support! This project would be a fruitless endevor without you.
Cheers — here's to 1.6 million more downloads.